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::: УThe flag which once rose will never fall againФ - Mammad Amin Rasulzade.

There could be rarely found personalities in the world history who has completely dedicated all his life to the development and sovereignty of his nation and motherland from the very young ages till the day of his death. Great Azeri statesman, public figure and one of the founders of the first Azerbaijan Republic Mammad Amin Rasulzade during all his existence was struggling for the independence of his country as living within it as well as being too far away. M. A. Rasulzade was born in 1884 on the 31st of January Novkhani village of Baku in religious family. He received his primary education at the Russian-Muslim Secondary School and continued his studies at the technical College of Baku. His social and political career begins very early at the age of 18. From that time Rasulzade started writing articles in most various themes like politics, education, culture, economy, literature. It was a time of strengthening of social conception and awakening of national ides in politics as the beginning of the XX century marked with strong social-political shocks like Russian revolution in 1905, constitution overturn in Iran, the movement of young turks in Turkey, anti-azeri policy of Armenian parties caused to the rise of political ideas and creating of new political newspapers. Rasulzade was cooperating with different opposition papers and his first article was published in 1903 in УShargi-RusФ newspaper. A year before, in 1902 he organizes УMuslim YouthФ organization. This foundation was the first confidential political organization against Russian colonial policy in Azerbaijan. Some time will pass and this organization will continue its activity as УMuslim democratic Musavat SocietyФ, and later УMusavatФ party which soon became the strongest political party of the XX century. The meaning of УMusavatФ is equality from Arabic language. Cooperating with different political organizations of that period Rasulzade was in close relationships with socialists and Joseph Stalin who spread his revolutionary activities in Baku. In 1905 exactly Rasulzade saves Stalin from the furious workers of Blakhani oil-fields who wanted to throw him to oil-well when Stalin tried to involve them to rebellion. Second time he saves Stalin when arranges his confidential escape from the Bail prison. In 1908 he was pursued for his political activities and he leaves for Iran where actively takes part in SattarkhanТs national liberation movement of 1908-1911. Rasulzade joins Sattarkhan and travels over Southern Azerbaijan territories where meets his azeri counterparts and informes of their terrible living conditions. In 1910 Mammadamin Rasulzade with a group of southern azeri intellectuals arranges Iranian Democracy Party and its press organ УIrane novФ Ц УNew IranФ and becomes the editor of the first European style newspaper in Iran. In 1911 Rasulzade under the pressure of Russian government to Iran was forced to leave for Istanbul Ц which served as the pet refuge for political muslim-exiles from Russia and Iran. There he works at different press organs and impresses even greater with the idea of national liberty and independence. He returns Baku only after the amnesty act of 1913, connected with the 300th anniversary of the Romanovs Royal Dynasty. Continuing his journalistic and political activities Rasulzade and his associates - great azeri enlighteners Ahmad bay Agayev, Ali bek Huseynzade, U. Hajibekov publish different media organs like УIrshadФ, УFiyuzatФ, УTereqqiФ, УHummetФ and other newspapers where the idea of Azeri autonomy was actively developed. In 1915 Rasulzade starts publishing the organ of УMusavatФ Party newspaper УAchiq SozФ Ц УOpen WordФ. Since 1917 he was selected the chairman of УMusavatФ National Party. Also in 1917 Rasulzade was selected the deputy to Russian Parliament from Azerbaijan. Finally, the October revolution of 1917 changed everything and for some time Russia and the countries belonged to it had no united and strong ruling centre. Armenian terrorist parties used this confused situation and realized genocide of Azerbaijan people in many parts of the country in March of 1918. On 28th of May of the same year in Tbilisi Rasulzade was unanimously elected the Head of the Azerbaijani National Council (Milli Shura) after the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Federation which timely was performing governing role for the three south Caucasian regions Ц Azerbaijan, Georgia and Armenia. The news of Independency of Azerbaijan Republic was transmitted by radiograms to different parts of the world. And that was creation of the first Independent State among all Turkish language and Islamic countries. In June 16 National Government moved from Tbilisi to Ganja, and in September 15 finally gained in Baku. In 1918 November 19 was established first national azeri parliament consisting of 120 members. Along with azeri nations there were also representatives of Russian, Armenian, German and Jewish nationalities. At the first meeting of the parliament was recited independence declaration of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic (ADR). Nevertheless that Rasulzade and his government was acting in very difficult times they accepted many decisions on different fields like social, military, cultural, economical. They accepted acts on creation of Azeri Citizenship, National Bank, the Creation of the State University. In June 1918 were accepted important decisions on creation of strong National Army. In June 27 Azerbaijan language was proclaimed the state language. In November 9 were accepted national symbols Ц hymns, flag, herb which are the symbols of modern Azerbaijan Republic up to now. Azerbaijan was the first among all the eastern countries which gave women right of election. One of the most considerable achievements of ADR was the establishment in 1919 of the first University in Azerbaijan Ц Baku State University. Along with providing with opportunity to get higher education in Baku, Government also sent 100 young azeri students to France, Italy, England and Turkey universities and colleges. In 1920 January 12 to Paris Peace Conference were sent Azeri Government representative staff and the participating countries Уde factoФ recognized the independence of Azerbaijan Republic and it was decided to open representative offices in England, France, Italy, Switzerland, Poland and USA. During its supremacy National government also influenced people spiritually developing in them the sense of national unity and independence. Mammad Amin Rasulzade and his associates took the slogan Уturkizization, islamisation, and europezation which found its reflection in national flag as the blue color express Turkism, red symbolizes modernization and green Islamic ideology. In 1920 April 28with the help of XI Red Army Bolsheviks occupied Azerbaijan and took the government by force. In spite the fact that the parliament existed just 23 months for that short period were accepted many meanings that, no doubt, made its influence during the creation of Independent Azerbaijan in 1991. In August 1920, Rasulzade as all members of former government was arrested by Bolsheviks. Due to his earlier support to Joseph Stalin from the members of democratic government only Rasulzade was saved from death and released. As soon as Stalin was informed about his arrest he quickly came to Baku released him and took with him to Moscow. For the next two years Rasulzade worked as the press representative at the Commissioner on Nations in Moscow. But after some time his confidential friends helped him to immigrate through Saint Petersburg to Finland and from there to Turkey. So from 1922 starts RasulzadeТs life in emigration, his new efforts for liberation of his motherland and unification of Azeri Diaspora throughout the world. In different years he lived in Turkey, Poland, Germany and was keep working on the sovereignty of native Azerbaijan. From 1931 he lives in Europe countries like Germany, Poland and Rumania. He publishes in Berlin УIstiglalФ newspaper and УGurtulushФ journal. In 1938 in Berlin he publishes his book УAzerbaijan problemФ and in 1939 in Poland УAzerbaijan hurriyyet savashiФ. His activities in Germany are also closely connected with the release of azeri nation soldiers among soviet prisoners of war captured by German fascists. Finally, with the end of World War II in 1947 Rasulzade comes back to Turkey and publishes in 1950-51 books ФModern Azeri literatureФ and УModern Azeri historyФ. He always tried to build a sovereign Azerbaijan, and all he did during he was in emigration, his thoughts and ideas very soon came to help to his natives on building completely new country. УThe flag which once rose will never fall againФ- that was his motto during all his life while further turns of history proved the actuality of great leaderТs words when Azerbaijan finally got its Independence. Mammadamin Rasulzade died on the 6th of March in 1955 in Ankara clinic from diabetic decease, he is buried in Ankara УEsriФ cemetery. His last words were УAzebaijanЕAzerbaijanЕ.AzerbaijanФ

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